G20 coulé pour (Presque) rien mis à part les 700 000 € rien que pour assurer la sécurité des chefs d’Etat ainsi que la conférence de presse du président Obama. Le coût total avoisinerait voire dépasserait 1 milliard de dollars !!!

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The most significant outcomes of the G-8 and G-20 meetings

G20 Summit Presidential Press Conference
President Obama speaks to the media after the G20 Summit in Toronto, Canada and reports on the progress made to continue the economic recovery around the world, implement financial reform, and address the global challenges that affect shared economic prosperity. June 27, 2010.

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G20 Commits to Deficit Reduction Time Line
Dan Robinson | Toronto27 June 2010
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G20 Leaders Pledge to Slash Deficits

Leaders of the Group of 20 meeting in Toronto, Canada have agreed that the world’s most advanced industrialized countries should reduce their budget deficits by half within three years, with further steps to cut debt relative to economic output by 2016.
The G20, which includes major industrialized powers in the Group of Eight plus developing nations with significant economies such as China and India, agreed to a specific time line for deficit reduction, while giving governments flexibility to adjust the pace of changes based on their own situations.

A plan promoted by host Canada will have the most advanced countries cut their budget deficits in half by 2013.  By 2016, governments would be required to stabilize or begin reducing the percentage of their debt as measured against total gross domestic product, the value of all goods and services produced in a given country.

Canada’s Prime Minister Stephen Harper, who in opening the summit said nations are walking an economic « tightrope, » noted that the G20 declaration leaves room for continuing stimulus measures and steps to bring down debt.

« All leaders recognize that fiscal consolidation is not an end in itself, » he said. « There will be a continued role for ongoing stimulus in the short-term as we develop the framework for strong, sustainable and balanced growth. »

The declaration calls recovery so far from the global economic crisis uneven and fragile, with unemployment at unacceptable levels in many countries.  It says unprecedented and globally coordinated fiscal and monetary stimulus is playing a major role in helping to restore private demand and lending.

Saying serious challenges remain, G20 leaders recognize the risks to recovery from fiscal adjustment across several major economies.  But they add that failure to implement fiscal consolidation where it is needed could undermine confidence and hamper growth.

US President Barack Obama speaks during a closing press conference at the G20 summit in Toronto, 27 June 2010
President Barack Obama and other U.S. officials argued strongly at the summit against any early slowing of stimulus spending by governments, saying that it might bring about a second global recession.

In his concluding news conference, the president was asked about divisions on this issue.  He said the declaration reflects policies that the United States has promoted and addresses a range of needs.

« In each country, what we have to recognize is that the recovery is still fragile, that we still have more work to do to make this recovery durable, » he said.  « But we also have to recognize that if markets are skittish and don’t have confidence that we can tackle the tough problems of our medium- and long-term debt and deficits, then that also is going to undermine our recovery. »

The president said the declaration shows that G20 nations can bridge their differences and coordinate approaches while continuing to focus on durable growth that puts people to work and broadens prosperity.

The G20 declaration recognizes U.S. concerns, saying that sustaining economic recovery requires nations to follow through on delivering existing stimulus plans, while working to create the conditions for robust private demand.

On other key issues, European nations such as Britain, France and Germany failed to win G20 agreement for new taxes on banks as part of efforts to discourage excessive risk-taking that could lead to another financial crisis.  The declaration leaves such a tax up to individual members.

G20 nations pledge a medium-term phase out of what they call inefficient fossil fuel subsidies, although this would take into account what they call vulnerable groups and their development needs.

Where the world’s poorest countries are concerned, the G20 says that narrowing the development gap and reducing poverty are integral to a broader objective of achieving strong, sustainable and balanced growth.

At the last of bilateral meetings at the G20, Mr. Obama met on Sunday with Indonesia’s President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono, India’s Prime Minister Manmohan Singh and Japan’s Prime Minister Naoto Kan.

President Obama discussed the U.S.-India Strategic Partnership, and joint efforts on climate change.  Mr. Obama said he looks forward to his trip to India in November.  Prime Minister Singh called President Obama a « role model for billions and billions of people » around the world.

After the G20, President Obama returns to Washington, where he will be waiting for Congress to give final approval to legislation that will impose sweeping new regulations on the U.S. financial system.

G20 leaders say they look forward to their next meetings – in Seoul, South Korea in November, and next year in France.  Mexico assumes the G20 chairmanship in 2012.

The G-20 Summit in Toronto: Global Leadership to Combat Corruption
The White House
Office of the Press Secretary
For Immediate Release
June 27, 2010

President Obama believes that the world’s major economies have a special responsibility to prevent and tackle corruption and to establish legal and policy frameworks that ensure the integrity of markets and promote a clean business environment.
In recent decades, the United States has been a global leader in building an international architecture to combat corruption:

We passed the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act in 1977, which prohibited bribery of foreign public officials, and we have extended its reach internationally through the creation of the Anti-Bribery Convention at the OECD.
We led in the effort to create a comprehensive global treaty, the United Nations Convention against Corruption (UNCAC), which now has 143 signatories.
We helped to establish the Financial Action Task Force to combat money laundering and terrorist financing, and have strongly supported its efforts on corruption.
We have used the G-8, among other fora, to advance our anti-corruption agenda by seeking concrete commitments from our allies and partners to set in place policies and practices that impede high-level corruption.
Today, the G-20 signaled its commitment to global leadership in the effort to combat corruption.  The G-20 reaffirmed its commitment to the full implementation of UNCAC and announced the establishment of a high-level experts group to develop a comprehensive set of concrete commitments for consideration by Leaders in Korea.
Building on our prior commitments in Pittsburgh, the group will dedicate particular attention to a role for the G-20 in strengthening international efforts to combat corruption with a focus on key areas that include:
Adopting and enforcing strong and effective anti-bribery rules;
Fighting corruption in the public and private sectors;
Preventing corrupt officials from accessing the global financial system;
Cooperation in visa denial, extradition, and asset recovery; and
Protecting whistleblowers who stand-up against corruption.
The United States sees corruption as a core part of the mandate of the G-20 as the premier forum for international economic cooperation, and its efforts to follow through on commitments in Pittsburgh to strengthen the integrity of the international financial system.  Preventing and tackling corruption must be a key part of our efforts to shape an international economic architecture that is rules-based and transparent; that promotes trade and fair competition among businesses; and that fosters prosperity and development, by recognizing the fact that corruption, illicit outflows of capital, and their absorption in the global financial system represent impediments to economic growth.

The G-20 Summit in Toronto: Acting on Our Global Energy and Climate Change Challenges
The White House
Office of the Press Secretary
For Immediate Release
June 27, 2010

At the Toronto Summit, G-20 Leaders reaffirmed their commitment to phasing out fossil fuel subsidies, a groundbreaking agreement at the Pittsburgh Summit which will encourage the conservation of energy, improve our energy security, reduce economically inefficient burdens on budgets, and provide a down-payment on our commitment to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.  The Leaders reviewed the significant work that has been done this past year to develop implementation strategies and timeframes, and committed themselves to continued and full implementation of this effort.
Background on the Pittsburgh Commitment and Implementation Process
At the Pittsburgh Summit, the G-20 Leaders committed to rationalizing and phasing out inefficient fossil fuel subsidies over the medium term.  Since Pittsburgh, the G-20 countries have focused on the following activities:
Developed Country Strategies and Timeframes for Review: In January 2010, the G-20 established an experts working group on energy, in which all 20 countries participate in an open and constructive manner. The G20 energy experts, under the supervision of the Finance and Energy Ministers, have taken initial steps to review fossil fuel subsidy programs in their own countries, and develop strategies and timeframes for rationalizing and phasing out inefficient fossil fuel subsidies.
Joint Report on the Scope and Impact of Global Fossil Fuel Subsidies: As requested by the G-20 leaders, the International Energy Agency (IEA), Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), and World Bank will soon publish a Joint Report analyzing the scope of global energy subsidies and offering recommendations for rationalization and phase out.  Their report has found that fossil fuel subsidies displace important public investments and drain government finances, worsen balance of payments, lead to underinvestment in infrastructure, and can contribute to energy shortages.  The report estimates that fossil fuel consumption subsidies cost the the global economy $557 billion in 2008, and unless eliminated can be expected to impose similar costs in the future.  Additionally, the report found that subsidies do not provide meaningful, widespread benefits to low-income households, and that other types of targeted support for low-income families serve as a more effective social safety net.
Recent Successes: On June 25, India announced its decision to deregulate retail gasoline prices.  In addition, the government decided to raise the prices for diesel, kerosene, and liquid petroleum gases (LPG), with a further commitment to phase out the diesel subsidy over time.  This is a difficult decision in the short-run due to concerns about price inflation, but will provide long-term benefits to the country.  In Mexico the government has begun phasing out motor fuel subsidies while conducting a household-level census of fuel consumption that will allow the government to implement a well-targeted support program to compensate low-income households.  These models from India and Mexico are important examples of how the G-20, and countries around the world, can implement this pledge to the benefit of their national economies and most vulnerable citizens.
Achieving Additional Progress
At Toronto, the G-20 Leaders welcomed the work to date of the Finance and Energy Ministers to fulfill the Pittsburgh fossil fuel subsidies pledge, and encouraged continued and full implementation of country-specific strategies.  The G-20 also committed to review progress towards this pledge at upcoming Leaders Summits.
Global Action on Climate Change
The G-20 Leaders who have associated with the Copenhagen Accord reaffirmed their commitment to implementation of the Accord, and are working with countries around the world to carry out the Accord’s provisions on cutting emissions, promoting clean technologies, mobilizing financing, and ensuring the transparency of national efforts.  The G-20 countries are scaling up their domestic efforts to reduce emissions, and working to mobilize financing internationally so that developing countries can better adapt to climate change and invest in clean energy technologies.

G20 : les dirigeants ne trouvent pas de voie commune [pourtant au défi de consolider une croissance fragile.]

LEMONDE.FR avec AFP et Reuters | 27.06.10 | 08h21  •  Mis à jour le 28.06.10 | 09h03
Surtout qu’il y aurait eu 700 000 € de dépenses rien que pour assurer la sécurité des chefs d’Etat (entendu sur FIP lundi 28 juin 2010).

Les dirigeants des pays les plus industrialisés et des grandes puissances émergentes réunis à Toronto, au Canada, se sont séparés dimanche 27 juin sans avoir réussi à s’entendre sur une voie commune pour limiter les errements de la finance et coordonner leurs politiques économiques. Il a été ainsi convenu que chacun avancera à son propre rythme en adoptant des politiques »différentes » qui tiennent compte des « circonstances nationales ». « Nos défis sont aussi divers que nos nations », a déclaré le président américain Barack Obama.
En se focalisant sur la réduction des déficits budgétaires, les Européens ont « tout faux », estime la présidente argentine Cristina Fernandez en s’appuyant sur l’expérience de son propre pays. Dans une interview accordée samedi à l’agence Reuters en marge du sommet du G20, elle explique que la cure d’austérité imposée aux Argentins a contribué à la crise financière de 2001, quand le peso, la devise nationale, avait plongé et que son pays avait dû se déclarer en défaut de paiement. A l’adresse des Européens, elle rappelle que l’Argentine aussi avait réduit les salaires de ses fonctionnaires pour remettre de l’ordre dans ses comptes publics : « Tout cela avait fini par une implosion et un défaut de paiement. »
Sur la
taxe spécifique au secteur bancaire, chacun est libre d’agir comme il lui plaît. »Certains pays imposent une taxe financière tandis que d’autres ont choisi une approche différente », peut-on lire dans le longcommuniqué final publié dimanche. « Ce qui est déjà extraordinaire, c’est qu’on ne nous empêche pas de le faire et ça fera tâche d’huile », s’est félicité le président français, Nicolas Sarkozy, même si les Européens espéraient convaincre leurs partenaires d’adopter en bloc cette mesure.
Se voulant lui aussi positif, le directeur général du Fonds monétaire international (FMI),
Dominique Strauss-Kahn, a expliqué que toutes ces références à la « situation particulière de chaque pays » se justifiaient. « On voit bien l’intérêt qu’il y a à gagner de la croissance, si chacun fait ce qu’il a à faire », a-t-il déclaré après le sommet.
C’est cet état d’esprit qui a amené le G20 à adopter, sur le sujet polémique des
déficits budgétaires, une formule lancée quelques semaines auparavant par les Américains : « des plans de consolidation favorables à la croissance ». Les Européens estiment que les engagements de réduction des déficits contenus dans le communiqué montrent que le G20 a validé leur position. Leur réduction de moitié sur trois ans paraît même largement à portée de main au vu des engagements pris par tous les Etats, y compris les Etats-Unis. Également annoncée, la stabilisation du ratio dette/produit intérieur brut (PIB) à une échéance de six ans s’annonce plus délicate à tenir, les Etats-Unis tablant ainsi jusqu’ici sur une hausse de ce ratio au moins jusqu’en 2015.
Le G20 a également appelé à « accroître la flexibilité du
taux de change dans certains marchés émergents ». En ligne de mire : la Chine, seul membre du groupe à ne pas avoir de monnaie flottant librement si on excepte l’Arabie saoudite dont la politique de taux de change ne pose de problème à personne. Pékin s’est montré prêt la semaine passée à assouplir son régime de changes, ce qui devrait permettre une revalorisation de la monnaie chinoise.
L’avantage de ce G20 à la carte sera de permettre à chacun de revendiquer une victoire de retour chez lui. « Les pays émergents ont été tout à fait pris en compte dans le communiqué, nos positions sont toutes là », a claironné le ministre des finances brésilien Guido Mantega, chef de délégation en l’absence de son président Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva. « Le G20 est une composante essentielle de la stratégie de l’administration (du président américain Barack) Obama pour assurer la reprise mondiale », s’est félicitée la Maison Blanche.
Une exception japonaise a par ailleurs été consacrée à Toronto. Tokyo a obtenu « davantage de latitude » que les autres dans des objectifs de réduction de la dette publique exagérément ambitieux pour ce pays parmi les plus endettés au monde. Mais le plus satisfait était encore l’hôte canadien, estimant avoir obtenu tout ce qu’il avait souhaité. « Ici, on a franchi des étapes importantes, des étapes que le Canada recherchait », a déclaré le premier ministre Stephen Harper au moment de clore le sommet.
Les dirigeants ont rendez-vous pour un nouvelle réunion dans moins de cinq mois à Séoul, un temps court entre deux rencontres de cette importance. Organisé en sommet depuis 2008, année où la crise économique était à son plus fort, le G20, qui réunit les Etats-Unis, leurs grands alliés européens, le Japon mais aussi la Chine, le Brésil, l’Inde et la Russie, souffre aujourd’hui du rythme plus ou moins rapides des sorties de crise de ses membres, qui se traduisent par des priorités différentes.

SUR LE MÊME SUJET (lepoint.fr)

ANALYSE Quatre Français… pour rien


    Authors: Timothy Cox Alec van Gelder
    Media outlet: New Times (Rwanda)
    Published date: Monday, July 5, 2010

    The G20 reaffirmed in Toronto recently their commitment to development aid even though it has rarely been shown to develop anything and has frequently been shown to do harm. The only way poor countries have developed is by allowing their people to make things, sell things and trade with other countries.

    At the G20 summit in Toronto in late June (26-27), the world’s richest countries reaffirmed their commitment to increasing development aid. This is both unrealistic and unhelpful.

    Donors are already behind on their previous commitments: Last month it emerged that the G8 nations were $20 billion short (in real terms) of their 2005 Gleneagles aid pledges. The financial crisis has forced countries into rigorous austerity measures and aid budgets are feeling the pinch. And a good thing too.

    Paradoxically, the prospect of declining aid revenues could be a boon for people trying to escape poverty in developing nations. Rather than pandering to foreign politicians, the leaders of poor nations would be forced to focus on growing their own economies. Currently, many developing economies are shackled by an array of internally imposed trade barriers, tariffs and regulations that hamper business. Aid gives no incentive to change these, but removing them would do more to alleviate poverty than any amount of foreign assistance.

    Trade is the surest known route out of poverty. Given the freedom to trade goods and services, people can use their comparative advantage of production and exchange their goods for things that other people make better.

    This is why Hong Kong no longer needs to produce staple foods: these are bought with the income from selling other things it produces more efficiently, such as financial services. The remarkable growth in Hong Kong, Singapore, China and the “Asian Tigers” is testament to the power of trade to allow hundreds of millions of people to lift themselves out of poverty in just a few decades.

    This success has not been limited to Asia. Forty years ago, Mauritius was one of the poorest countries in the world, dependent almost exclusively on sugar cane. Today, Mauritians enjoy some of the best standards of living in Africa and their economy boasts extensive finance, retail and tourism sectors. Average incomes (adjusted for purchasing power) are now on a par with Turkey at around US$12,500.

    Crucial to this success has been the creation of a business-friendly environment. The success of local business creates stability and investment opportunities, attracting foreign capital and creating new businesses. The World Bank considers Mauritius to be the best place to do business in Africa and the 17th best in the world–higher than Sweden and Switzerland. By comparison, African countries currently constitute 17 of the 20 worst business environments in the world.

    In most poor countries, red tape is compounded by egregiously high import and export tariffs. As Rwandan President Paul Kagame recently noted, “…competition in an economy is good for poor people… competition is good everywhere… Asking our citizens to compete is the same as asking them to go out there into the world on behalf of Rwanda, and play their part. On the other hand, shielding them is something that travels deep in the mind. If you allow a process where some people are shielded from the forces of competition, then it’s like saying they are disabled.”

    Despite Kagame showing that progress is possible–Rwanda recently became the most business-friendly economy in East Africa–many developing nations remain trapped in protectionism. Governments continue to prevent their businesses from enjoying duty-free access to foreign goods which would significantly lower their costs of production and enable them to compete globally. The poor pay the bill. These barriers to trade should be demolished, unilaterally and immediately.

    Public opinion towards aid and development is shifting both among donors and recipients. The decision of the UK’s new coalition government to ring-fence aid spending has provoked widespread criticism–a recent poll found only 6% of Britons think aid should be protected from austerity cuts. Instead of continuing to walk the financing tightrope, dependent on the changing moods and fortunes of donors, developing countries should follow Hong Kong and Mauritius and break free.

    True aid will only come with internal reforms that allow the poor to make things and to trade with each other and everyone else. These reforms can be implemented without foreign assistance. Nothing else will aid the poorest to make poverty history.

    Alec van Gelder is a Project Director and Timothy Cox a Research Fellow at International Policy Network, an independent economic-development think-tank in London.
    Article Link:

  2. Un G20 pour (presque) rien

    Chiffres clés :

    45h de négociations pour 1 communiqué final avec 0 décision
    Coût 1,2 milliard de dollars
    1 point pour l’UE : réduire au moins de moitié les déficits d’ici 2013 et stabiliser ou réduire les ratios de la dette publique au PIB d’ici 2016
    1 dérogation pour le Japon dont la dette atteint 200% du PIB
    0 engagement contraignant sur l’appréciation du yuan de la part de la Chine
    0 réforme financière concernant la taxe financière et bancaire portée par Sarkozy et Merkel
    1 an de règne au sommet du G20 pour Sarkozy après celui de Séoul à la mi-novembre